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    Microsoft Embraces Kerberos Over NTLM for Enhanced Authentication Security

    Microsoft Plans to Replace NTLM with Kerberos for Enhanced Authentication and Security
    Microsoft has recently announced its intention to phase out the use of NT LAN Manager (NTLM) in Windows 11 in favor of the Kerberos authentication protocol. This move comes as part of Microsoft’s strategy to enhance authentication methods and bolster overall security. Kerberos has been the default protocol since 2000, and Microsoft plans to focus on strengthening its use while reducing reliance on NTLM.

    Two new features introduced in Windows 11 are Initial and Pass Through Authentication Using Kerberos (IAKerb) and a local Key Distribution Center (KDC) for Kerberos. IAKerb allows clients to authenticate with Kerberos across diverse network topologies, while the local KDC extends Kerberos support to local accounts.

    NTLM, introduced in the 1990s, provides authentication, integrity, and confidentiality to users through a challenge-response protocol. However, Kerberos has taken precedence since the release of Windows 2000 due to its more secure authentication management. While NTLM continues to be used as a fallback mechanism, it has inherent security weaknesses and is vulnerable to relay attacks, potentially allowing unauthorized access to network resources.

    Microsoft is actively working on addressing hard-coded NTLM instances in its components in preparation for phasing out NTLM in Windows 11. The company is also making improvements to promote the use of Kerberos instead of NTLM. These changes will be enabled by default and will not require additional configuration for most scenarios. However, NTLM will still be available as a fallback option to maintain compatibility with existing systems.

    Overall, Microsoft’s decision to phase out NTLM in favor of Kerberos reflects its commitment to stronger authentication and improved security in Windows 11.

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